Vietnam Academy Of Social Sciences

Current Status and Policy Recommendations to Ensure Social Protection for Vietnamese Families

01/06/2019

Prof. Dr. Dang Nguyen Anh, Institute of Sociology, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences.

 

Abstract: Vietnam is making every effort to enhance the quality of people’s life and welfare. Over the past 30 years of đổi mới, or renovation, process, the social protection system has been improved gradually. There exist, however, many challenges and inadequacies in the social protection system. The  household-based  access  to  social  protection  and  gender  mainstreaming  remain  limited, especially in the areas of vocational training and elderly care. Those who have participated in social insurance to receive retirement pensions in the future just make a low proportion. The quality of the healthcare services covered by the health insurances is not good enough. People still consider social protection to be a type of subsidy from the Government, which is not enthusiastic about issuing social protection policies. This paper focuses on the current status of social protection policies and suggests several possible policy responses, aiming at improving social protection for the Vietnamese families.

Keywords:  Social  protection,  social  insurance,  vocational  training,  social  assistance,  family security policy, Vietnam.

Subject classification: Sociology

 

1. Introduction

Social protection is one of the important components in the national development strategies, which helps to stabilise the socio-political situation, regulate the stratification of living standards,  narrow the gap between rich and poor, and create a consensus among different social groups.

Social  protection  not  only  refers  to  the economic dimension but also has profound significance in social and human aspects. An  effective  system  of  social protection will contribute an important part towards the   national governance as well as community and family development.

Based on the social protection policies, the State can redistribute incomes and social services to the most vulnerable groups like low-income households, aiming at reducing  poverty,  preventing  the  risk  of falling  back  into  poverty,  and  gradually tackling social inequality.

The  Social  Protection Floor has been ratified by the United Nations, enabling all people to have  at least a guaranteed minimum income (GMI) and access basic social services, to ensure the basic rights, promoting economic development, and protecting the environment. It is aimed at achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with the active participation of the State institutions, private and voluntary organisations, enterprises, and all citizens  [9].  In  Vietnam,  the  issue  of ensuring social protection has always been an  important  policy  for  national sustainable development by the State and the  Party.  Resolution  No.15-NQ/TW  (of the    11th    Central     Committee     of    the Communist Party of Vietnam) dated 1 June 2012,  focusing  on  several  social  policy issues during the 2012-2020  period, is  a sound  decision  about  improving  social protection  for  all  citizens,  especially the poor, people who are in especially difficult situations, and people of ethnic minorities. In Decision No.622/QĐ-TTg promulgated in 2017 on a national action plan for the implementation  of  the  2030  Agenda  for Sustainable Development, remarkably, the Prime Minister emphasises the importance of   paying   particular   attention   to   and providing  support  for  those,  who  are  in difficult circumstances, such as the elderly, the  poor,  people  with  disabilities,  ethnic minorities in remote areas, women, children, and other vulnerable people so that “no one is left behind” [8].

Despite different understandings of social protection  in  Vietnam,  there  is  a  general consensus that a social protection system is considered  successful,  only  when  it  shows capable measures to shelter individuals and social groups from risks and damage caused by  natural  calamities  as  well  as  negative socio-economic impacts so that their standards of living and essential needs for a means  of  living  can  be  maintained.  An advanced social protection system should be examined on the basis of the  risk management  model  with  three  strategies, including risk prevention, risk mitigation, and risk overcoming [5]. Over several periods, the social protection system in Vietnam has been increasingly   improved,   consisting   of   the following groups of policies [7]:

- Policies on social insurances: Designed to provide support for those, who have taken part in the insurance system, so that they can minimise risks due to sickness, pregnancy, employment injury, unemployment, or old age, based on compensation for the amount of  income they have  lost  due  to  the  risks mentioned above;

- Policies on social assistance: Designed to provide regular or unscheduled (irregular) support  for  reducing  and  overcoming  risks caused by a bad harvest,  natural calamities, accidents, or conflicts etc.;

- Policy on employment creation:

Designed to ensure a minimum income and poverty  reduction,  enabling  people  to  be proactive in preventing risks when taking part in the labour markets so that they can get a good job and the minimum income to cover basic needs.

In   addition   to   the   social   protection policies, the State has also promulgated a number of social policies to strengthen the people’s  access  to  basic  services  (to  a certain      extent)     such      as      education, healthcare, housing, farmland, clean water, information   and   communication.   Those social  services  are  closely  related  to  the sustainable  development  goals,  playing  a significant role in eradicating poverty in all its forms. At the same time, those policies have  overall  social  significance,  ensuring that everyone can take part in and benefit from achievements of the economic growth.

This  paper  is  a  result  of  the  research project titled “Social Protection Policies for Vietnamese   Families   in   the   Context   of Modernisation and International Integration” coded KHXH-GD/16-19/06, a component of the Ministerial Science and Technology Focal Research   Programme   conducted   by   the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS)    with the aim of providing comprehensive  assessments  of  Vietnamese families  in  the  period  of  industrialisation, modernisation, and international integration. Besides  analysing  available  data  on  social protection  as  well  as  findings  of  various research  works,  the  author  focused  on  the directions and policies on social insurance, employment, vocational training, and social assistance to point out the current status of social protection for the Vietnamese families. The  paper,  therefore,  reviews  and  analyses the existing social protection policies, based on which several policy recommendations are proposed  to  enhance  social  protection  for families  and  family  members  in  Vietnam. The  following  part  describes  the  family- related social protection policies, which are being implemented at present. First of all, it is the social insurance policy, a key component of the social protection system.

 

2. Existing policies on social  protection for the Vietnamese families

During  the  transition  from  the  model  of social   welfare   based   on   the   centrally planned subsidised economy to the model of   social   welfare   corresponding   to   the socialist-oriented market economy in Vietnam,  social  protection  was  not  fully improved  to  meet  practical  demands  in society. This reflects the modest coverage of   social   insurance   and   unemployment insurance;  benefits  were  low;  access  to social    protection was limited and unreachable  by  some  social  groups;  and, resources mobilised for the implementation of the social protection policies were small, mainly  relying  on  scanty  funding  from public budget. Meanwhile, people did not pay attention to self-improvement. The role played by relevant institutions became more and   more   ineffective   in   ensuring   the traditional  social protection. Families, villages, and communities were no longer useful  institutions  to  protect  and  care for their members, leading to new challenges and   difficulties   to   the   current   social protection policies.

 

2.1. Policies on social insurance and healthcare insurance

Social insurance guarantees the replacement or  the  compensation  of  an  income  that labourers have lost due to sickness, pregnancy, employment injury, unemployment, retirement, or  death,  based  on  the  contributions  they have  made  to  the  social  insurance  fund sponsored  by  the  State.  At  present,  the social  insurance  in  Vietnam  includes  the following  types:  (1)  Mandatory  insurance rendered   to   the   situation   of   sickness, pregnancy, employment injury, retirement, and death; (2) Voluntary social insurance rendered to the situation of retirement and death;  and,  (3)  Unemployment  insurance consists of unemployment benefits, occupational   training   support,   and   job- seeking support.

According  to  a  report  of  the  Vietnam Social Security (VSS), by the end of 2017, the number of people participating in social insurance   remained   small.   It   was   13.9 million,  accounting  for  29%  of  the  total number  of  people  at  the  labour  age  in Vietnam. Moreover, most of those labourers took out mandatory social insurance (13.6 million), and very few took out voluntary one  (0.3  million)  [4].  The  proportion  of insurance participants has increased mainly in  the  groups  of  people  working  for  the State. It means that common people are not enthusiastic about the insurance programmes, which still have many shortcomings and lack necessary   attractiveness.   The   number   of insurance participants applying for an one- time insurance payment has been increasing rapidly, by roughly 700 thousand each year. This  means  that  they  leave  the  insurance system  and  will  not  receive  a  retirement pension.  Those  are  mainly  the  labourers dismissed from enterprises, but they find it difficult to get a new job in other enterprises and to continue paying monthly premiums. These   people,   consequently,   decide   to receive an one-time insurance payment. In addition, some enterprises have deliberately delayed or avoided paying for their workers’ mandatory insurance, resulting in an accumulated insurance debt of several trillion VND. In the closing report of the 7th plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of   the   Communist   Party   of   Vietnam, mentioning   the   social   insurance   policy, General   Secretary   Nguyen Phu Trong emphasised  the necessity     of     having innovative measures to develop and expand the people’s participation in social insurance, as it remained lower than the potentiality [3, p.4]. Social  insurance policies enable labourers,  who  do  different  jobs,  work  in different   economic   sectors,   and   live   in different  areas, to participate in the social insurance  programme.  The  funding  of  the social insurance programme is mainly based on financial contributions made by labourers and their employers. It also receives some financial support from the State budget and runs under the supervision and sponsorship of the Government.

Health insurance is an important part of social insurance and a major component of social protection [1]. Health insurance is  compulsory  under  the  law,  aimed  at providing health care and preventing and sharing the risk when a person encounters sickness  or  injury.  The  situation  of  the health insurance system in Vietnam, however, does not look more optimistic, although the proportion  of  people  participating  in  the health  insurance  programme  is  relatively high (nearly 81 million people, making up 86.4%   of   the   whole   population).   The reason is that most of the people, who have health  insurance,  are  those  who  get  a healthcare  subsidy  from  the  Government. Noticeably, the quality of   medical examination and treatment provided through  the  health  insurance  programme has not satisfied the demand and expectation of the people. The regulation on household- based health insurance plans shows many shortcomings, though the amended Law on Health Insurance has been promulgated. At first sight, the regulation on household-based insurance plans seems to be reasonable, but its   implementation has caused many difficulties for people in  practice. The fact that household members  are recognised on the   basis   of   the   household   register   of permanent residence (Vietnamese: hộ khẩu). It is quite inappropriate and does not show the actual residence status. The law regulates that a person can buy health insurance only when he or she is named in a household register of a permanent residence, it excludes those who do not have a permanent residence and those who are not named in the household register of   any   permanent   residence.   Thus,   the household-based  health  insurance,  attached too  closely  with  the  register  of  permanent residence, has resulted in difficulties for the labourers   working   at   enterprises.   Those labourers are not provided with new health insurance numbers (i.e. they are not allowed to buy new health insurance plans), because they  were  provided  with  health  insurance numbers at the households in the local areas, where they have their permanent residence. The  people’s  trust  in  the  quality of  health insurance is fading gradually, leading to an erroneous consciousness of social protection. Obviously   the   existing   health   insurance policy does not demonstrate the risk-sharing among  all  participants.  The  quality  of  the medical examination and treatment service, of  which  expenses  are  covered  by  health insurance, is not reliable enough to persuade people to use the services, resulting in a waste of resources and making the health insurance programme ineffective.

Due to the limited management facilities and qualifications as well as the shortcomings of the current policies, social insurance and health insurance, representing the  most  important  components  of  social protection, have not met the demands of the society. Herein, the question is how social insurance and health insurance policies should be designed in order to be effective and  appropriate  to  meet  the  sustainable development goals until 2030.

 

2.2. Labour market policies

Within the framework of social protection, the labour market policies include: policy on labour market development; policy on preferential loans for development of trade, production  and  job  creation;  policy  on vocational training support; and, policy on sending  labourers  abroad  under  contract (commonly called the labour export policy). One of the objectives of those policies is to provide support for labourers so that they have more opportunities to get jobs, take part in the labour market, and earn at least a minimum  income.  Beneficiaries  of  those policies include young workers, who start to  take  part  in  the  labour  market;  the unemployed; and, those who are in need of getting better jobs.

Trained female labourers or female workers, who have had vocational training, just  make  up  a  small  proportion  of  all female  labourers  in  Vietnam.  Meanwhile, the proportion of untrained female labourers  amounted  for  81.6%  in  2016, higher  than  the  corresponding  figure  of male  labourers  (76.7%).  This   figure  is directly proportional to age, reaching 92.3% in  the  age  group  of  55  to  59  [6].  It demonstrates   that   female   workers   have much fewer opportunities to take part in the skilled labour market, get a stable job, or earn a proper income. However, the proportion of underemployed  female  workers2   is  lower than that of male ones in both urban and rural   areas.   The  reason  is   that  female workers are often ready to accept several jobs simultaneously to get more earnings.

Furthermore,  female  workers  are  less selective about jobs than male counterparts. They agree to take a low-paid job offered to them, in order to earn extra income; whereas, male labourers rarely accept such jobs [7]. In reality, the policies on providing support for participation in the labour market have not  been considerably improved.  They  have not met practical demands, especially those of female labourers and therefore have made gender inequalities severer. As a result, a part of female labourers, especially those who are poor, have low levels of education, have not experienced vocational training, or live in rural areas, find it most difficult to access and benefit from the policies.

 

2.3. Policies on vocational training and support provision for post-training job seekers

Since the Law on Vocational Training came into effect in 2006, many important policies related to  vocational  training and support provision for post-training job seekers have been promulgated, aimed at concretising the Law on Vocational Training in practice and enhancing   human   resources.   Instead   of providing direct support for households as a whole, the policies address the provision of vocational training for individuals, who are household members such as female, young, and  male  members.  Some  policies  give priority to only female workers. Especially, there  was   a  project   (Project   No.  205) focused on helping women to learn working skills and creating jobs during the period from 2011 to 2015. Like the labour market policies, however, the policies on vocational training have not been conflated fully and effectively with gender equality. Female  labourers  are  not  provided  with favourable conditions by the policies. Most of them, particularly rural  women,  ethnic minority women, and women aged 35 or over, do not  have an opportunity to  take part in long-term regular courses or benefit from  the  vocational  training  policies  and programs [7]. A large number of programmes and  projects  within  the  social  protection framework  provided only short-term vocational training courses (less than three months).  In  some  areas,  they  were  even carried   out   in   the   form   of   peripatetic training.   Those   types   of   training   just focused on some jobs, which did not require the skills in using machines or equipment; for example, seamstressing, embroidering, weaving, cooking, beauty caring, farming, and animal breeding. As the courses were held  for  a  short  duration  with  very little practice and the trainees could not get jobs to  do  after  the  courses,  the  vocational training was not as effective as expected.

From the perspective of social protection, the regulations on the enrolment in long- term vocational training courses are seen as an obstacle to those who want to take the vocational training. Some policies and mechanisms related to the provision  of support for vocational trainees are no longer appropriate.  They  are  not  successful  in encouraging women, particularly rural women, ethnic minority women and those in remote areas, to take vocational training. Specifically, the support for accommodation expenses during the training periods is too little to attract people to vocational training programs. The policies on preferential loans sometimes overlap each other and are not implemented  in  combination  with  other policies,  such  as  the  policy on  providing support  for  vocational  training  and  the policy on providing support for production and  consumption.  The  regulations  on  the maximum  amount,  the  duration,  and  the conditions of loans are not appropriate to the requirements of production and trade as well as local and occupational characteristics. In addition, the activities of disseminating information and giving advice on vocational training have not been developed at the grass- roots  level  (in  villages/communes).  Those who   undertake   the   disseminating   and advising activities are not qualified enough for the jobs, especially in rural, remote, and ethnic minority areas. It is easy to realise the shortage    of policies encouraging enterprises to provide vocational training or set up production groups at the local areas, aimed  at  helping  labourers  save  money from travelling and have a job to do after the training.

 

2.4. Policies on social assistance

Social assistance policies are often implemented regularly or irregularly, from which  elderly  people  benefit  the  most  at present. The old-age allowance is given on a  monthly  basis  to  the  elderly  in  poor households, who are neither cared for nor supported by anyone. It is also given to the elderly aged 80 or above, who have neither a  monthly  retirement  pension  nor  social insurance.  In  reality,  however,  the  rural elderly find it difficult to benefit from the healthcare service, although they make up the majority. In many local areas, a large number of elderly people are living lonely without being cared by others, since their children have left the home village for a faraway place to work or get married and settle down. Due to a growing tendency of young   people   to   migrate   to   urban   or industrial areas, it is more difficult to care for the elderly left behind. Meanwhile, there are still many inadequacies in caring for the elderly.  The  awareness  of  the  population ageing and its impacts on socio-economic development remains limited. Local authorities have not paid proper attention to the       population       ageing. The      elderly themselves have not realised the need for being cared for and protected; even, some of  them  have  not  made  any  necessary preparations for old age at all. The spiritual life of the  elderly mainly relies on some social associations (such as the Association of the Elderly and the Association of Life Protection), which have very few activities and a very limited fund [2, pp.4-12].

Population ageing has not been concerned appropriately in the social consciousness of the local governments at different  levels,  though  it  is  an  obvious trend at present. As   the   population   is ageing,  many  difficulties  and  challenges arise,  resulting  in  great  pressure  on  the systems  of  healthcare,  social  insurance, retirement     pensions, and      other    social services. The population ageing started to accelerate  in  the  first  decade  of  the  21st century with the highest growth rate of the elderly. Vietnam is, therefore, encountering three big problems related to the population ageing and a growing quantity as well as a growing  proportion  of  the  elderly.  The number  of elderly people  has been increasingly rising. A large number of the elderly  are  living  below  or  marginally above the poverty line. Most of the elderly have  poor  health.  The  number  of  the elderly  living   lonely  is   rising,   as   the support from family members and relatives is  being  narrowed.  A  majority  of  the elderly are living and doing farming in rural areas.   As   shown   in  reality,   very  few elderly  living  in  the  countryside  have  a retirement  pension  or  receive  a  regular allowance; they still have to work to earn a living or rely on support from other family members.   The   elderly,   who   are   still working   to   earn   a   living   mainly   in agriculture, account for roughly 40% of all the elderly in Vietnam. The total number of the  elderly,  who  have  voluntary  health insurance,  is  just  1.1  million,  making  up 15% [11]. The elderly, who are living in rural, remote, mountainous, border or island areas, comprise a large proportion of all the elderly, but they can hardly get access to healthcare services and policies.

It is necessary to have a system of social protection policies, which are more appropriate to the demands and characteristics of   the   population-ageing   society   in   the context of the market economy in Vietnam and international changes. Social protection services, particularly the systems of retirement pensions, insurances, and elderly care,  require  considerable  resources  and long-term visions. Social protection for the elderly must be considered in the context of the family relationship and the material and spiritual care from their family members.

 

3. Several recommendations and conclusions

Under   the   impacts   of   industrialisation, migration, and international integration in addition  to  a  low  birth  rate  and  a  fast population ageing, the Vietnamese families are not only getting increasingly smaller in size but the family relations, specifically the relations between different generations and  members,  are  becoming  looser  and looser. The family cohesion is no longer as tight as before [1, pp.4-12]. The impressive economic  growth  during  the  entire  past decade  is  considered  an  opportunity  to improve the welfare of      Vietnamese families. There is, however, a big gap in the access   to   resources   between   different groups of people, particularly between the rich   and   the   poor.   Especially,   gender inequality  remains  serious.  The  existing social protection policies are not adequate to meet the demands of families and build trust among people. The transparency and effectiveness are vague. It is quite common that policies are   implemented   like subsidisations.  As  a  result,  many  people receive support from the Government as a subsidy,   which   does   not   match   their demands or expectations [12].

Drastic socio-economic changes and macro-instabilities have caused severe impacts on the performance of social protection as well as the employment and living conditions of people. The services of job  creation  and  vocational  training  have not  yet  met  the  people’s  demands.  They have not focused on improving the social protection of families by providing support to  access  the  labour  market.  Especially, gender equality has not been ensured. The number of university graduates who cannot get   a   job   has   amounted   to   hundred thousand. Regarding the vocational training programmes  for  rural  areas,  the  trainees cannot  get  an appropriate job  to  increase their  income  as  expected.  Most  of  them have  no  choice  but  return  to  agricultural work that they used to do before taking part in the vocational training [12].

The Party and the State have promulgated sound   guidelines   and   policies   on   social protection. These policies, however, have not been  implemented  effectively  in  practice. The apparatus and financial resources for the implementation of the policies were not built transparently   and appropriately. It   was sometimes carried out as a campaign, making the  effectiveness  of  the  policies  limited. Although  the  social  protection  system  has step  by  step  been  developed  in  terms  of coverage,   beneficiaries,   and   amounts   of benefit,  the  social  protection  policies  for Vietnamese  families  have  not  yet  met  the requirements of sustainability and demands of the people. Except for a small number of preferential policies, such as the policies for those families credited with contributions to the revolution, the policies on provision of healthcare support for poor households and ethnic  minority  households,  the  existing social  protection  policies  mainly  focus  on providing  support  for  specific  groups  of people, including the elderly, women, children,     and the disabled. Gender mainstreaming  has  not  been  implemented properly in social protection policies. Women and girls remain disadvantaged in families, particularly  in   poor and ethnic  minority families [11]. The growth in the quantity and proportion of the elderly requires appropriate social  protection  policies in order to  cope with today’s demographic changes [10].

Interventions in social protection policies should concentrate on minimising the   vulnerability   of   families,   managing risks,   and   improving   the   protection   of family members before instabilities in life. It  is  quite  popular  that  people  “manage social protection separately on their own”, which  cannot  ensure  sustainability  since families  are  facing  many  more  risks  and greater vulnerability at present. Besides, the activities   that   provide   support   for   the elderly, lonely old people, poor households, households  credited  with  contributions  to the revolution, ethnic minority households, and the disabled, etc. are seen by the people as a subsidy from the Government, instead of  realising  them  as  part  of  the  social protection programmes. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account the following recommendations:

Firstly, the regulation on buying health insurance on the basis of  the  household register of permanent residence should be eliminated,  as  it  causes  obstacles  to  the participation in health insurance, especially for low-income households. The coverage of  social  insurance  remains  limited  and does not seem to be improved soon. Getting access  to  high-quality  healthcare  services via health insurance is difficult. Thus, it is essential to set up a mechanism for effective coordination between different types of insurances, aimed   at   providing comprehensive insurance services to people.

Secondly,  it  is  necessary  to  strengthen propaganda to enhance the people’s awareness of  social  protection  and  relevant  policies. Family  members   should   be  supported  to understand the social protection programmes correctly so that they no longer realise social protection as a subsidy from the Government.

Social protection policies should consider the context of market economic development, the gap between the rich and the poor, and the international changes that are hardly predictable.  Social  protection  is  a  pillar  for sustainable  development  and  the  basis  for performing and obtaining sustainable development goals, as the commitments of the Vietnamese Government with the international community [9].

Thirdly, it is necessary to develop advisory services  related  to  vocational  training  and employment  promotion, providing  free  of charge  services  for  poor,  ethnic  minority, low-educated, and migrant women. A mechanism for close coordination  between organisations, agencies related to vocational training   at   the   central   and   local   levels (including   the   State   labour   management agencies, local governments, vocational training establishments, enterprises, and socio-political organisations) must be set up. Specific services, such as vocational training, employment promotion, labour export and so on  should  be  addressed  to  families  as  the main participant and beneficiary.

Fourthly, support and care for the elderly should be considered as one of the important components in social protection policy-making.  In  reality,  the  population trend  continues  to  cause  more  challenges and  greater  pressure  on  the  systems  of healthcare,   social   insurance,   retirement pensions,  and  elderly  care  in  Vietnam. Consequently,   social   protection   policies should be more appropriate to Vietnamese families   as   well   as   the   demands   and characteristics of the ageing population. For the elderly, social protection policies should focus directly on the development requirements of families, due to the role and close relations of the family members with the elderly. This is an effective measure to cope with the population ageing which is taking place rapidly in Vietnam at present.

 

Notes

1 The paper was published in Vietnamese in:  hội học, số 2, 2018. Translated by Nguyen Tuan Sinh, edited by Etienne Mahler.

2 The underemployed consist of those who work less than 35 hours a week and expect to have extra work to do.

 

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[8]   Thủ  tướng  Chính  phủ  (2017),  Quyết  định 662/TTg ngày 10/5/2017 về việc ban hành Kế hoạch hành động quốc gia thực hiện Chương trình Nghị sự 2030 vì sự phát triển bền vững, https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban.aspx,   ngày 22   tháng   5   năm   2018.   [Prime   Minister (2017), Decision No.662/TTg dated 10 May 2017  on  Promulgation  of  National  Action Plan  for 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development, https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van- ban.aspx, retrieved on 22 May 2018].

[9]   UNDP  (2015),  Các  mục  tiêu  phát  triển  bền vững   SDGs,   New   York.   [UNDP   (2015), Sustainable Development Goals, New York].

[10] UNFPA (2011), Già hóa dân số  người cao tuổi ở Việt Nam: Thực trạng, dự báo và một số khuyến  nghị  chính  sách,  Hà  Nội.  [UNFPA (2011),   Ageing  Population   and  Elderly  in Vietnam:   Current   Status,   Prognosis,   and Policy Recommendations, Hanoi].

[11] Viện Khoa học Lao động và Xã hội (2015), Báo cáo An sinh xã hội đối với phụ nữ và trẻ em gái Việt Nam, Bộ Lao động - Thương binh và Xã hội, Hà Nội. [Institute of Labour Science and  Social  Affairs  (2015),  Report  on  Social Protection for Women and Girls in Vietnam, Ministry   of   Labour,   Invalids   and   Social Affairs, Hanoi].

[12]  Viện Xã hội học (2018), Báo cáo tổng hợp Đề tài: "Chính sách an sinh xã hội cho các gia đình ở Việt Nam trong bối cảnh hiện đại hóa và  hội nhập  quốc  tế", Mã số KHXH-GĐ/16- 19/06,  Hà  Nội.  [Institute  of  Sociology  (2018), Final Report of the Project on Social Protection Policies for Families in Vietnam in the Context of Modernisation   and   International   Integration, Coded KHXH-GĐ/16-19/06, Hanoi].

 

Sources cited: Vietnam Social Sciences, No. 2 (190) - 2019

 

 

 



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