Vietnam Academy Of Social Sciences

Outstanding Achievements in Archaeological Research Cooperation between Russia and Vietnam


Nguyen Khac Su, Institute of Archaeology,

Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences.


Abstract: For nearly a decade (2010-2019), the Institute of Archaeology of the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences has been conducting a cooperation programme with the Novosibirsk Institute of Archaeology  and  Ethnology  of  the  Russian  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  has  obtained  many achievements. One of the most remarkable achievements of the cooperation programme was the finding of the excavations in Con Moong cave (Thanh Hoa province) and the Palaeolithic sites in An Khe (Gia Lai province). A geological stratum over 10.14m thick, which has remained intact in Con Moong cave, consists of many successive cultural layers and reflects changes in the palaeo- environment and cultural evolution of the prehistoric inhabitants in northern Vietnam from 70,000 BC to 9,000 BC.

Keywords: An Khe, Con Moong, Palaeolithic, Neolithic, archaeology, prehistory. 

Subject classification: Archaeology


1. Introduction

Many academically confident and life-related achievements have been accumulated by the former Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR) as well as present-day Russia in the sphere  of  archaeological  research  on  the history of humanity. At the same time, the research programmes conducted in cooperation between Vietnamese and Russian archaeologists have provided specific findings  and  played  a  significant  role  in increasing awareness for history and improving research capacity.

In the early 1960s, Russian archaeologists came to Vietnam, taking part in providing archaeological training for Vietnamese researchers. We highly appreciate the contribution made by Professor P.I. Boriskovsky, who spent many years enhancing the capacity of the first Vietnamese  archaeological  researchers  in Vietnam  and  participating  in  excavations for the research on primitive Vietnam. He received the Labour Medal, a noble reward, granted by the government of Vietnam.

For many years, including those of the resistance war against the Americans, various generations of Vietnamese archaeological researchers took training and graduated  from  universities  in  Moscow, Saint   Petersburg   (known   previously   as Leningrad), and other cities of the former USSR. On the anniversary of the October Revolution and the USSR Foundation Day, Vietnamese archaeological researchers often hold a scientific conference to discuss the Soviet archaeological achievements and the Russian - Vietnamese archaeological research cooperation [5], [6], [3], [2], [1]. Recently, the work titled “History of Vietnam” (Vietnamese:  Lịch  sử  Việt  Nam), consisting  of  six  volumes,  was  edited  and published by Russian historians to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of National Reunification of Vietnam in 2014. The first volume provides a summary of the archaeological materials on the period from the Stone Age to the Iron Age.

The cooperation in archaeological research and excavations is always seen as an important part in the cooperation between the two countries. In the  past, many excavations were carried out on the site  of  Oc  Eo  culture  by  the  Southern Institute of Social Sciences in cooperation with the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of Material Culture. In addition, the Institute of Archaeology (Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences) has also been conducting a cooperation programme with the Novosibirsk  Institute  of  Archaeology  and Ethnology (Russian Academy of Sciences) from 2009 to 2019. One of the most remarkable achievements of the cooperation programme was the finding of the excavations in Con Moong cave (Thanh Hoa province) and the Palaeolithic site in An Khe (Gia Lai province).

2. Excavation in Con Moong cave

The findings of the cooperative excavations in  Con  Moong  cave  (2010-2014)  and  its surrounding caves such as Hang Lai, Mang Chieng, and      Hang   Diem   contributed towards  the  clarification  of  the  primitive history of Vietnam in the transitions from the Pleistocene to the Holocene, from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic, and from the primitive age to the civilised age, based on a geological stratum over 10.14m thick that has  remained  intact  to  show  the  cultural evolution from 72,000 BC to 7,000 BC.

Inside  ten  geological  layers  in  Con Moong cave, some tools made of quartzite were found at a depth of 8.6m dating back to 72,000 BC. They are crude flakes of a small size. Those artefacts mainly include pointed  hand  axes,  scrapers,  razors,  and carving knives. This cultural layer reveals a  technique  of  lithic  reduction  that  is completely different from those discovered so   far   in   other   caves   in   Vietnam. According to the palaeo-magnetic analysis, the archaeological materials show that the ave  dwellers  did  not  spend  much  time staying inside the cave since very few tools have  been  found,  which  is  typical  for colder climates.

The  fifth,  the  sixth,  and  the  seventh cultural layers are found at a depth ranging from 5.1m to 6.8m. The age of those layers is dated  to  48,000  BC  (layer  7),  44,000  BC (layer 6), and 35,000 BC (layer 5), based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), a method for measuring doses from ionising radiation. A number of artefacts were found in those layers, including flake tools, small pebble choppers, quartzite and andesite, and limestone materials as well as semi-fossilised animal   remains.   However,   the   mollusc brought to the cave and used by man was only found in the fifth layer. Traces of rain were  found  in  the  upper  fifth  and  lower fourth layers. The lithic reduction in those layers is different from that of the flake tools found  in  Nguom  (Thai  Nguyen  province), Bailian  cave  (Guangxi,  China),  and  Lang Rongrien (Thailand), where small flake tools show traces of the second modification.

Compared   with   the   dwellers   in   the earlier layers, those in the fifth, the sixth, and  the  seventh  lived  more  permanently inside the cave, but the traces remain very vague.  A  drastic  change  in  climate  took place during this period. A sudden phase of cold climate appeared, making limestone in the fifth layer shrink and break into small pieces, which is called limestone breccia by archaeologists. In such a climate condition, the  dwellers  made  flake  tools  used  for hunting  small  animals.  This  reflects  the adaptation to the surrounding environment.

The third and fourth layers are located at a depth ranging from 3.6m to 5.1m. The absolute age of the fourth layer is dated to 34,000 BC, while that of the third one is dated  to  26,000  BC  or  25,000  BC.  The dwellers of those layers made small pebble tools and flake tools from diabase, basalt, quartzite,   and   limestone.   They   hunted various  species  of  animals  and  terrestrial molluscs, which were mainly mountainous snails. After the Last Glacial Period (20,000 years later), the climate became gradually warmer, so the dwellers stayed inside Con Moong cave more frequently. They step by step moved their shelter towards the cave entrance in the west. As they spent more time living in the cave, the snail shells were more fragmented and squeezed firmly into the cave floor due to their steps. As some geological change occurred, making rocks fall from the cave ceiling down to the cave floor,   the   cultural   layer   was   greatly impacted, sliding down the cave shaft. The traces of the initial sedimentary block can be found in a long line running along the cave wall at present.

The  second  layer  located  at  a  depth ranging  from  2.5m  to  3.6m  dates  to  10 different periods from 17,000 BP to 13,000 BP,  according  to  the  radiocarbon  dating (also known as radiocarbon-14 dating). The artefacts found in this cultural layer mainly include trimmed pebble tools of the Son Vi culture   and   bone   tools.   During   those periods,  inhabitants  lived  on  hunting  big mammals and  collecting  snails   in mountains  and  streams.  The  dead  were buried in a foetal position with stone tools. As  shown  by  the  palaeo-magnetic  and pollen  analysis,  it  was  a  clear  tropical monsoon climate. The inhabitants collected molluscs  to  eat  and  made  hundreds  of pebble   and   bone   tools,   representing   a transition  of  tool-making  technique  from Son Vi to Hoa Binh culture.

The  latest  habitation  is  found  in  the cultural layer at a depth of 2.5m, of which the age ranges from 13,000 BP to 7,000 BP. At that time, the cave dwellers also made and used trimmed pebble tools. In the early phase of the period, they made their stone hand  axes  sharpened  at  the  blade.  In  the later phase, however, there were stone hand axes, of which all the faces were sharpened, and potteries as well. The dwellers experienced a palaeo-climate change with a wide range of hot, cold, and mild climate cycles mixed. There was a transition from the slightly dry and cold climate to the hot, humid, and monsoon one. During the period from    11,400    BP    to    8,800    BP,    the precipitation  was  very  high.  Like  many other caves, consequently, the average sum of sediment carried into the cave amounted to 1cm per every 100 years. It is ten times higher  than  that  of  the  previous  period (from  20,500  to  11,400  BP)  when  the corresponding  figure  was  just  0.1cm  per every 100 years. In other words, the rainfall in the period from 11,400 BP to 8,800 BP increased  the  same,  compared  with  the previous period. Due to the heavy and long rains, inhabitants in northern Vietnam spent more  time  living  inside  the  caves  during that period. Only after 7,000 BP, when the period of heavy rainfall ended, did people start to leave the caves for plains lying in the foothills, such as Da But (Thanh Hoa and   Ninh   Binh   provinces),   or   ancient coastal areas, such as Quynh Van (Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces). They even moved straight  to  islands  to  live  and  set  up  a prehistoric sea culture, like the owners of Cai Beo culture (Quang Ninh province and Hai Phong city).

The findings of the excavations in Con Moong cave provide a standard geological stratum that demonstrates the entire prehistoric cultural process and the adaptation of humans to the environment. The transition of the community structure from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic is also shown clearly by the  excavations in Con Moong and its surrounding caves, such as Hang Lai, Mang Chieng, Hang Dang, Moc Long,  Diem,  and  Nguoi  Xua,  which  are closely attached to the karst topography and the  biodiversity  of  Cuc  Phuong  National Park.  Those historical materials are extremely significant for the compilation of the primitive history of Vietnam from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic, when inhabitants changed   their   livelihood   from   hunting, gathering and foraging to the beginning of agricultural farming. Owing to the research findings, Con Moong cave and its adjacent sites  have  been  ranked  special  national vestiges by the government.

3. Palaeolithic excavations in An Khe

One of the especially meaningful achievements in the archaeological research cooperation between Russian and Vietnamese researchers was obtained in the research and excavations of the Palaeolithic sites in An Khe (Gia Lai province). The existence of the early Palaeolithic technique    was confirmed   by   the   researchers   through artefacts   including   hand   axes,   trihedral points, and choppers, of which the absolute age is determined to range from 806,000 ± 22,000 and 782,000 ± 20,000 BP, according to the  Potassium-argon  dating  (K-Ar dating).  It  is  the  oldest  cultural  vestige among all the  Palaeolithic vestiges discovered so far in Vietnam, marking the beginning of the history of Vietnam.

Since  2014,  Russian  and  Vietnamese archaeologists have found 21 Palaeolithic sites in An Khe commune, of which four have  been  excavated,  including  Go  Da, Roc Tung 1, Roc Tung 4, and Roc Tung 7. The  geological  strata  in  those  vestiges remain intact, providing thousands of stone artefacts  and  hundreds  of  meteorite samples [10]. This is an important source of  historical  materials  to  determine  the existence  of  the  early  Palaeolithic technique   and   its   role   in   the   cultural heritage of humanity.

Tools   of   the   An   Khe   Palaeolithic technique were found in the vestige sites on some hills  in An Khe Town. Those hills have an average height of 420 to 450m and are located along the Ba River. In reality, An  Khe  is  one  of  21  geographical  sub- regions  in  Central  Highlands.  Named  An Khe  depression,  it  is  a  transitional  area between Pleiku highlands in the west and the South Central coastal plain in the east.

The   traces   of   the   An   Khe   cultural technique  are  kept  in  a  cultural  layer,  of which  the  thickness  ranges  from  25  to 40cm.   The   layer   mainly   consists   of lateritised clay, which originally came from the   granite   weathering.   There   are   also meteorite  pieces,  which  fell  from  other planets  to  the  dwelling  places  of  ancient people. As initially recognised, architectural traces  of  the  floors,  on  which  ancient inhabitants lived, have been found on the sites. In some places, there are mainly tool- making traces, like the relics of a workshop. In some others, there are both living and tool-making traces.

Tools   of   the   An   Khe   Palaeolithic technique were made of pebbles collected from  the  local  river  and  streams.  The pebbles  have  a  large  size  and  smooth grains. They mainly came from hard stone such as quartzite, denatured quartzite, and silica stone. On the tools, there are crude flake scars made by humans. Very few of them  show  traces  of secondary modification.  The  toolkit  of  the  An  Khe technique   consists   of   bifaces,   unifaces, points,  trihedral  points,  choppers,  blades, scrapers,  hammerstones,  pestles,    stone nuclei (cores), and flakes. Meanwhile, hand axes, trihedral points, unifaces, and crude chopping tools are the most typical for the artefacts found on the sites.

Hand axes are particular in the category of bifaces [4], which have been found in almost  all  the  An  Khe  Palaeolithic  sites, despite in a small quantity. The most typical for An Khe Palaeolithic hand axes are the four axes found in Roc Lon, Roc Gao, Roc Huong, and Roc Tung (Figure 1). They are made of quartzite pebbles of a large size.

Particularly, some of them have the shape of  a  javelin  dart,  of  which  one  end  was trimmed into a sharp point, and the other end was a round handle. The flake scars are mainly found in two third of the body from the pointed end. They were trimmed in both opposite sides, tapering from the outer edge to the centre, resulting in a flange running from the pointed end to the round handle. It is  the  thickest  in  the  central  part  and gradually  thinner  towards  the  two  edges.

The flake scars are small and overlap one another,  resulting  in  a  zigzag  edge.  The average  size  of  the  hand  axes,  the  length, width, thickness, and the weight are 20.7cm, 11.9cm, 7.4cm, and 1.9kg respectively.

The  unifaces  account  for  a  relatively large proportion of the artefacts, especially at some sites, such as Roc Lon, Roc Tung, and  Roc  Huong.  They  were  made  from large-sized oval pebbles, of which one side was almost completely trimmed off, and the opposite side was kept original. The flake scars concentrate on the two edges, creating a  convex  end  and  a  handle.  The  average length,   width,   thickness,   and   weight   are 20.7cm,  13.6cm,  8.4cm,  and   2.3kg respectively (Figure 2 a, b).

Illustrative pictures

Regarding the trihedral points, they were made from pebbles, of which three faces on one end were trimmed into a point, and the other  end  was  left  original  as  a  handle. When a pebble had originally two flat faces forming an obtuse angle, they just needed to trim  one  more  face.  When  a  pebble  had originally one flat face, they needed to trim two more flat faces. The cross-section in the middle  of  the  points  has  the  shape  of  a nearly   isosceles triangle. The average length,  width,  thickness,  and  weight  are 19.8cm,   11.9cm,   8.07cm,   and   2.32kg respectively (Figure 2 c, d).

Crude chopping tools were made from quartz  or  quartzite  pebbles,  which  had  a large size and an oval shape. Flake scars are mainly  found  on  one   end.  They  were trimmed  narrower  on  one  side  to  make choppers or both sides to make chopping tools. Those tools often have a convex edge and a big handle that still keeps the original pebble cortex. The average length, width, thickness, and weight are 19.2cm, 11.7cm, 9.0cm, and 2.4kg respectively.

The tool-making technique in An Khe is different   from   that   on   other   sites   in Vietnam such as Do Mountain (Thanh Hoa province)   and   Xuan   Loc   (Dong   Nai province). On those two sites, stone tools were made from surface basalt rocks. In Do  Mountain,  there  are  large-sized  hand axes, rudimentary hand axes,  crude hammerstones,   Clactonian   flakes,   and multifacial  stone  nuclei.  In  Xuan  Loc, meanwhile,   there   are   small-sized   hand axes and trihedral points; there are neither stone nuclei nor flakes. The age of those tool-making  techniques  is  determined  on the basis of the morphology of tools. For example, the stone tools in Do Mountain are  estimated  to  date  from  400,000  BP [15], and Xuan Loc from 500,000 BP [8].

Outside  Vietnam,  the  Acheulean  tool- making   industry   (France)   is   seen   by scientists as manufacture characterised by bifaces  and  hand  axes  typical  for  the Palaeolithic period, which was previously determined   to   last   from   500,000   to 300,000  BP  [7]  and  has  been  recently determined   to   last   from   1,700,000   to 300,000 BP [11]. The bifaces were made of  flint,  of  which  the  two  sides  were knapped to create a thin edge and a pointed end;  the  handle  is  large  and  thick;  and, they have an even body surface. The hand axes  have  different  shapes,  including  a rectangle,  a  heart,  an  almond,  a  javelin dart, an egg, and eclipse shapes, of which the  most  typical  are  the  shape  of  an almond and the shape of a javelin dart.

Different  from  the  Acheulean  hand axes, the An Khe hand axes were made of pebbles. The original cortex of the pebbles is still found in some parts of the hand axes. The handle is nearly round and large.  Meanwhile,  the  Acheulean  hand axes  were  made  of  sedimentary  stone, particularly   silica   stone.   The   natural cortex of the stone was completely flaked off. They have a thin and bevelled handle. Large flake scars without any modification can be found on the An Khe hand axes, whereas,  the  Acheulean  hand  axes  have only small flake scars modified by regular and  well-proportioned knapping. The longitudinal section of the An Khe hand axes has the shape of a wedge, while the cross-section  has  a  nearly  oval  shape. Meanwhile, the longitudinal section of the European Palaeolithic hand axes has the shape of a wedge, and the cross section almost   has   the   shape   of   a   lens.   In general,  the  An  Khe  hand  axes  were cruder than the European ones, showing more ancient characteristics.

In  Southeast  Asia, the most ancient bifaces found in Indonesia bear some typical characteristics of the Acheulean industry  that  dates  to  around  0.8  million years   before   present.    In   this   region, however, the mainstream technique is the manufacture   of   choppers   and   chopping tools [14].

In  East  Asia,  Palaeolithic  hand  axes have been found in Dingcun, Hehe, Zhou Koudian, and especially Baise area (Guangxi province, China). There are 44 Palaeolithic sites located in five counties along the You river within the area of the Baise valley, including Baise, Tiandong, Tianyang, Pingguo, and Tianlin. The tools unearthed in those sites are classified to belong to the Baise tool-making technique. They include  points,  choppers,  scrapers, bifaces, and hand axes, which were made of  pebbles  of  a  large  size.  They  were knapped  directly  on  stone  anvils.  Very few flakes have been found on those sites. As  regards  hand  axes  alone,  they  were found in  four locations, including Yangshu, Nuolai, Nan Banshan, Pihong, which are located in the fourth platform of the You river and date back to the mid- Pleistocene. In 1993, a meteorite sample belonging  to  the  Baise  technique  was found in Baigu in Dahe village. It dates to the  period  from  732,000  ±  39,000  BP, according to the absolute dating. Recently, another  meteorite  sample  belonging  to  the Baise technique is determined to have an age  of  803.000  ±  3.000  BP.  Chinese archaeologists   suppose   that   the   Baise technique   represents   the   most   ancient Palaeolithic  hand  axe  technique  in  East Asia  [9].  The  An  Khe  and  the  Baise techniques have many similarities in types and manufacturing ways. Different from the Acheulean industry in Europe, these two techniques may have the same age.

Russian and Vietnamese archaeologists have identified that the An Khe technique is  characterised  by a  toolkit,  consisting of crude chopping tools, trihedral points, and bifacial hand axes. Of those tools, the crude  chopping  tools  have  been  mainly found in Asia; the bifacial hand axes are typical  for  the  Palaeolithic  tools  in  the West;   and,   the   trihedral   points   most characterise the An Khe Palaeolithic tools.

Regarding  the  age,  the  sample  coded 15.GD.M4.L1-2 found in Go Da dates back to  806,000  ±  22,000  BP  and  the  sample coded  16.RT1.H1.F6.L2.2  found  in  Roc Tung dates back to 782,000 ± 20,000 BP, according  to  the  Potassium-argon  dating (K-Ar dating) conducted at the Laboratory of Isotope  Geochemistry  and  Geochronology that belongs to the Institute of Geology of Ore   Deposits,   Petrography,   Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (IGEM RAN), Russian Academy of Sciences. Thus, the An Khe technique  dates  to  around  800,000  years before present.

As a result, the An Khe technique, of which the age is around 0.8 million years, was added by the Russian and Vietnamese archaeologists to the world map of biface industries [16].

The findings in the An Khe Palaeolithic sites changed the awareness of the history and   life   of   Vietnamese   ancestors.   In principle,  history  is  seen  to  start,  when humans appeared. In the past, the history of Vietnam  was  supposed  to  start  from  the time of Homo erectus, whose fossils were discovered in Tham Khuyen and Tham Hai (Lang Son province) and date back to 0.5 million years ago. With the findings at the An  Khe  Palaeolithic  site,  however,  the history of Vietnam has been determined to start  earlier,  at  the  time  of  about  0.8 million years ago. The inhabitants in that epoch  were  identified  as  Homo  erectus (upright  man).  Consequently,  An  Khe  is marked  on  the  world  map  as  one  of  the places that have kept the cultural traces of human ancestors. The An Khe toolmakers were,  therefore,  Homo  erectus,  the  direct ancestors of Homo sapiens.

Due to the shortage of materials, for a long  time,  many  people  believed  in  the existence  of  a  line  proposed  by  H.L. Movius in  1948 that divided  the Palaeolithic culture between the West and the  East  [13].  According  to  the  Movius line, the West was popularly characterised by the Palaeolithic hand axes trimmed in a standard     and     well-proportioned     way, illustrating the dynamism and progression. Meanwhile, the East was characterised by pebble  chopping  tools  trimmed  crudely according  to  the  natural  shape  of  the pebbles,   illustrating   the   backwardness, stagnation, and conservatism without  any contribution to the progression of humanity [12]. The discovery of the biface and   hand   axe   technique   in   An   Khe (Vietnam), Baise (China), and many other locations   in   Asia   has   repudiated   the hypothesis mentioned above.

Over nearly half a century, most people believed  that  Africa  was  the  origin  of earliest  humans, who then  migrated  and brought   the   technique   of   bifaces   to Europe  and  Asia.  The  discovery  of  the Palaeolithic hand axes in An Khe is one of the grounds for reviewing the theory of evolution  of  Homo  sapiens  in  various continents  as  well  as  the  historical  and cultural development in this region during the Palaeolithic Age.

4. Conclusion

In  the  context  of  the  open-door  policy and   international   integration,   Vietnamese archaeologists   set   up    and   strengthened cooperation    with    many    partners    from different countries in the world. Particularly, the projects and programmes carried out in cooperation with the Soviet archaeologists in the past and the Russian ones at present have   shown   friendliness,   sincerity,   and good effects.

With   a   lofty   friendship,   Vietnamese archaeological researchers never forget the love   and   support   provided   by  Russian people   for   Vietnamese   as   well   as   the heartfelt  cooperation  of the Soviet archaeological partners in general and Russian partners  in particular  with Vietnamese researchers  and  people.  Owing  to  those  cooperation  programmes, Vietnamese archaeology has developed, clarifying further the national tradition  and  origin and contributing to the world  archaeology.  A recent  outstanding achievement of the archaeological cooperation between Russia and Vietnam is the result of the research excavations   at   An  Khe  sites   and  Con Moong cave.

A standard stratum on the evolution of the     prehistoric culture, showing the adaptation  of  humans  to  the  environment and the community   structure   of   the inhabitants   during  the   period   from   the Palaeolithic   to   the   Neolithic,   has   been disclosed by the excavations at Con Moong and its surrounding caves. 

The discovery of  the An Khe Palaeolithic  technique  has  changed  the consciousness  of the  history and  life  of Vietnamese  ancestors.  It  helps  to  assert that the history of Vietnam started earlier, 0.8   million   years   ago.   The   An   Khe Palaeolithic toolmakers  were Homo erectus,  the  direct  ancestors  of  modern humans. Thus, An Khe has been added to the world map as a location keeping the cultural  traces  of  human  ancestors.  The discovery of the Early Palaeolithic hand axes  in  An  Khe  is  seen  as  one  of  the grounds   for   reviewing   the   theory   of evolution  of  Homo  sapiens  in  various continents  as  well  as  the  historical  and cultural development in this region during the Early Palaeolithic Age.

Vietnamese   archaeology   has   developed greatly and become a reliable partner in many archaeological cooperation programmes with other countries in the world, including Russia. In 2018, a research project co-funded by the Russian   Foundation   for   Basic   Research (RFBR)  and  the  Vietnam   Academy  of Social Sciences (VASS) was launched with the title “Fundamental Issues of the Stone Age Vietnam in the Context of Stone Age Indochina”. This project is a sign that the archaeological cooperation between Russia and   Vietnam   will   be   strengthened   and spread to other countries in Indochina and Southeast Asia.



1 The paper was published in Vietnamese in: Khảo cổ học, số 3, 2018. Translated by Nguyen Tuan Sinh, edited by Etienne Mahler.



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[13] Guang  Mao  Xie,  Erika,  Bodin  (2007),  Les Inductries  Paleolithiques  de  Basin  de  Bose (Chine  de  Sud),  L’Anthropologie,  No.  111, pp.182-206.

[14]  Saurin,   E.   (1971),   Les   Paléolithiques   de environs de Xuan Loc, Bulletin de la Société des Etudes Indochinoise, Vol. 46, pp.2-22.

[15]  БОРИСКОВСКИЙ П.И. (1966), Первобытное прощлое Вьетнама, Москва - Λенинград.

[16]  ДЕРЕВЯНКО,    А.П.,     Н.Х.     ШУ,     А.А. ЦЫБАНКОВ, Н.З. ДОЙ (2016), Возникновение бифасиальной индастрии в Восточной и Юго- Васточной                          Азии,           Новосибирск Издательство ИАЭТ СОРАН, ctp.59.

[17] ПРЕЗИДИУМ РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК     (2014),    Полная    академическая история  Вьетнама,  в  шести  томах,  том  I, древность и раннее средневековье (конец 4 - начало 3 тыс. до н.э. - 1010 г. э.), Москва.


Sources cited: Vietnam Social Sciences, No. 1 (189) - 2019


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